Collaboration can be defined as the process of working together to achieve a common learning Collaborative learning is a term that covers various educational and teaching approaches involving a shared effort by student peers, or students and teachers together. Collaborative learning is usually students working in smaller or larger groups towards a shared goal – the goal does not need to be a finished product or assignment but can take the shape of a discussion of concepts, problem exploration, problem-solving, argumentation, or evaluation, or assessment activity.
The learning outcomes of collaborative learning student groups depend on the quality of student discussions, including argumentation, explaining ideas to each other, and integrating and building on one another’s ideas. Explaining things to each other and discussing concepts and topics
can lead to a deeper understanding, identifying misconceptions, and strengthening the connections between new information and previously learned content. Furthermore, teachers implementing collaborative learning usually view themselves as facilitators of learning or learning coachers, rather than being viewed as an expert or the “all-knowing” professor.
Collaborative Learning, Cornell University: https://teaching.cornell.edu/teaching-resources/active-collaborative-learning/collaborative-learning
Goodsell, A. S. (1992). Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning and Assessment.
Laal, M. & Ghodsi, S. M. (2012). The benefits of collaborative learning. In: Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. (31). pp. 486-490.
Scager, K., Boonstra, J., Peeters, T., Vulperhorst, J. & Wiegant, F. (2016). Collaborative Learning in Higher Education: Evoking Positive Interdependence. In: CBE Life Sciences Education. 15(69). Pp. 1-9.
Team Collaborative Teaching, Vanderbilt University: https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/teamcollaborative-teaching/